The view relates strictly to what the user sees (perhaps also "hears", other senses), and how your application appears (usually visually) to the user.
The data model is the (non-visual) representation of what the data is (that the application is working with / manipulating).
The controller often facilitates interactions between the view and the data model, especially including handling UI events.
Note: In JavaFX, a lot of the view can often be specified in an FXML file, but there are also often some elements that cannot -- (for example, the JavaFX 3D stuff) -- which are still considered part of the view. Also, if you were to create your own JavaFX class (e.g. a subclass of Canvas), that would likely be considered part of the view as well (although it might also include some aspects of the Controller, depending on how you coded it).
And of course, instead of FXML, you can also choose to create the view by calling Java methods, like the https://math.hws.edu/javanotes/ textbook did.