IPhones have the capability to connect to a server for storage using the iOS files app. However, I didn't see one for Androids. Is there a feature in Androids that I am not aware about?
I'm an Android user as well, but I'm not sure what you mean by "a server for storage using the iOS files app." Are you referring to iCloud?
If this is the case, the Samsung Cloud can be found in settings. If you're looking for a file manager, there's also the "My Files" app that comes with the phone.
You can setup a personal network attached storage which is basically a hard drive on your network that can connect to your iPhone. Here is a link that might explain it better: [https://www.dignited.com/74383/transfer-from-nas-ipad-files-app/#:~:text=Step%201%3A%20Make%20sure%20your,address%20of%20your%20NAS%20drive.&text=Step%202%3A%20Tap%20on%20menu,password%20>>%20Tap%20on%20Next.]
I do not use this app but my samsung phone has Samsung Cloud, which can store various things on my phone. Some examples are pictures from Gallery, Calendar, Contacts, Reminders, Notes, and even saved WiFi and Bluetooth devices.